Tagged: EMPLOYMENT

A Glimmer of Hope in Greece

Greece just made its IMF payment due last week, indicating that the socialist government still does not think it has strong enough support among the Greek general public to secede from the euro zone. It is unlikely that any other arguments will keep them from reintroducing the drachma; high inflation – an inevitable consequence of a drachma resurrection – does not discourage socialists in other countries, such as Venezuela, from pursuing reckless domestic policies. Syriza, whose leader Tsipras is a dyed-in-the-wool Chavista socialist, wants to be the first to bring the warped ideology of Hugo Chavez to Europe, and he is not going to let his plans be spoiled by petty things like currency turbulence or 50-percent inflation like they have in Venezuela.

However, if the population generally is against a currency secession, he runs the risk of a parliamentary challenge long before the next election. His majority is very slim, and depends critically on the participation of a small nationalist party that could be peeled away by a determined opposition. In other words, Tsipras is walking a thin line to get Greece to where he wants her to be.

One of the problems with this thin line is that it does not allow for any sound economic policies. Nothing that could actually revive the chronically depressed Greek economy is permitted in under the Tsipras government’s low ideological ceiling. Therefore, the following report from Euractiv should come as no surprise:

Greek Finance Minister Yanis Varoufakis said on Thursday (9 April) that the government was restarting its privatisation programme and was committed to avoiding going into a primary deficit again. Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras’ government has been opposed to some asset sales but has promised not to cancel completed privatisations, and only review some tenders as part of the terms of a four-month extension of its February bailout program me. “We are restarting the privatisation process as a programme making rational use of existing public assets,” said Varoufakis, speaking in Paris.

This is how they are going to balance the budget: by means of one-time sales of assets. It is like selling the living room couch to pay your mortgage. What are you going to sell next month?

The previous Greek government did the same thing, obviously to no avail. In fairness, though, the Greek government has very few options. Despite some weak signs of a fledgling recovery earlier this winter, there is no clear rebound in the Greek economy.

Figure 1

GREECE cons

Private consumption, measured as four-quarter moving averages and adjusted for inflation, has stabilized a bit under €30bn per quarter. This is a substantial loss from the €37bn per quarter recorded right before the Great Recession, and it means that the Greeks have basically been sent back to 2001 in terms of standard of living.

Since private consumption is the driving force of the economy, its decline and stagnation since 2008 is the most vivid expression of the deep suffering that the Greek people has had to live through. That said, they have also asked for more by electing a socialist for prime minister whose comprehension of economics is weak, to say the least.

Tsipras, like all socialists, sees government as the indispensable economic agent; everything else is either debatable or out of the question.

With all that in mind, there is actually a flickering light in the tunnel. When Greece’s private consumption is measured per employed person, it actually looks like there is a small rebound in there:

Figure 2

GREECE cons pr emp

With consumption again measured by quarter, with four-quarter moving average adjusted for inflation, and then divided by employee, it looks like the Greeks are able to work their way up a little bit in terms of purchasing power. In the first quarter of 2011 per-employee consumption was €8,004; for the last quarter on record, Q3 of 2014 it was €8,178.

This does not look like much of an increase, but the underlying trend is weakly positive. This means that while only 54 percent of the Greek population 20-64 actually have a job, those who do are slowly beginning to establish a “new normal” of consumption. It is a normal that is characterized by stagnation, with almost no outlook toward reasonable gains in the standard of living – it is in essence life under industrial poverty – but at the very least this little rebound is an indicator that things are not going to get worse.

Ceteris Paribus, of course… And as one of my favorite economics professors from back in college loved to point out: ceteris is not always paribus. Things change. And not always for the better. Especially when you have a prime minister dedicated to the mission of bringing Chavista socialism to Europe. Come Scylla or Charybdis.

German Bond Rates Go Negative

The stagnant European economy does not need more bad news. Unfortunately, there is more coming. Business Insider reports:

The amazing collapse in German bond yields is continuing. Today, five-year bonds (or bunds) have a negative nominal return for the first time ever. That means that investors buying a 5-year bond on the market today will effectively be paying the German government for the privilege of owning some of its debt. This has been happening for some time now. In 2012, people were amazed when 6-month bund yields went into negative territory. In August, the two-year yield went negative too. Less than a month ago, the same thing happened with the country’s four-year bunds.

While there is a downward trend in bond yields in most euro-zone countries, there is a clear discrepancy between first-tier and second-tier euro states. Ten-year treasury bond yields, other than Germany:

  • Austria, 0.71 percent, trending firmly downward; France, 0.83 percent, trending firmly downward; Netherlands, 0.68 percent, trending firmly downward; Italy, 1.87 percent, trending firmly downward.

A couple of second-tier examples:

  • Ireland, 1.24 percent, trending weakly downward; Portugal, 2.69 percent, trending weakly downward.

Greece is the real outlier at 9.59 percent and an upward yield trend. But Greece is also a reason why Germany’s bond yields are turning negative. Although the Greek economy is no longer plunging into the dungeon of depression, it is not recovering. Basically, it is in a state of stagnation. Its very high unemployment and weak growth is coupled with an ongoing austerity program, imposed by the EU, the ECB and the IMF.

Add to that the political instability which, in late January, will probably lead to a new, radically leftist government. Syriza’s ideological point of gravity is the Chavista socialism that has been practiced in Venezuela over the past 10-15 years. They are also vocal opponents to the EU-imposed austerity programs, an opposition they would have to deliver on in case they want to stay relevant in Greek politics.

If Greece unilaterally ends its austerity program, it de facto means the beginning of their secession from the euro. That in turn would raise the possibility of other secessions, such as France, where a President Le Pen would begin her term in 2017 with a plan to reintroduce the franc. When that happens, the euro is history.

There is no history of anything similar happening in modern history, which makes it very difficult for anyone, economist or not, to predict what will happen. Europe’s political leaders will, of course, want to make the transition as smooth and predictable, but without experience to draw on there is a considerable risk that the process will be neither smooth nor politically controllable. Add to that the inability of econometricians to forecast the transition; based on the numerous examples of forecasting errors from the past couple of years, there is going to be little reliable support from the forecasting community for a rollback of the euro.

That is not to say the process cannot be a success. But the window of uncertainty is so large that it alone explains the investor flight to German treasury bonds.

This uncertainty is also throwing a wet blanket over almost the entire European economy, an economy that desperately needs growth and new jobs. Since 2010 the EU-28 economy has added 800,000 new jobs, an increase of 0.37 percent. For comparison, during the same time the American economy has added eleven million jobs, an increase of a healthy 8.5 percent.

Job Growth in Spain and Greece

In a couple of articles recently I have noted that Greece and Spain seem to be breaking the ranks of economic stagnation in Europe. While we wait for Eurostat to release third-quarter GDP data, let us take a look at what has happened on the job front in those two countries.

Let us, first of all, make one thing clear: a recovery as traditionally defined in the macroeconomics literature is not necessarily a recovery from a crisis of the kind Europe is now stuck in. This crisis is structural – permanent by default – and it will take a permanent change in the structure that perpetuates the crisis in order to end it. We may see an improvement in economic activity without such changes, but that improvement will not be strong enough to actually recover these economies.

A real recovery means a permanent elevation of economic activity above the two-percent growth threshold. Greece and Spain are far away from that threshold – even if they occasionally hit it in one quarter, it does not mean that they have recovered.

That said, there is one area where the Greek and Spanish economies are at least showing some resiliency: the job market. Analyzing Eurostat employment data we find quite a few interesting factoids.

Both Greece and Spain saw stronger job growth in Q2 2014 than the euro zone as a whole. In Greece the total number of employed persons grew by 1.58 percent over the previous quarter; in Spain the increase was 2.37 percent. For the 18-country euro area as a whole, job growth was a modest 1.21 percent.

In Q1 2014 total Greek employment increased by 0.11 percent, while Spain saw a 1.07-percent decline. Both numbers beat the euro zone where total employment fell by 1.57 percent over the previous quarter, Q4 2013.

Annually, the improvement is not quite as impressive. The Greek economy only grew total employment by 0.1 percent in Q2 2014 over Q2 2013. For Spain, the number was better at 1.1 percent, clearly beating the euro zone’s 0.3 percent. But both Greece and Spain lost jobs in the first quarter over same quarter previous year: employment was down 0.6 percent in Greece and 0.5 percent in Spain, while euro-zone employment expanded by 0.2 percent.

Nevertheless, looking back, the Greek economy has clearly been moving in the “right” direction for some time. Their annual quarter-over-quarter employment numbers have been improving for five quarters in a row now. This means four quarters of smaller and smaller decline, and again one quarter with an improvement year-to-year. The Spanish economy has seen a similar trend, though not quite as pronounced as in Greece.

The euro zone, by contrast, is not exhibiting any clear job-creation trend. Year to year, its quarterly employment numbers vary within a narrow band: from a decline of one percent to 0.4 percent growth. This verifies that the Greek and Spanish economies are bucking the trend, and this in turn calls for a deeper analysis of why that is happening. Furthermore, it means finding out whether or not it is realistic to expect the improvement trend to continue.

There is more good news for Greece and Spain: both countries have been able to turn around, or almost turn around, the employment situation for their young. In the age group 15-24, Greece has again seen five straight quarters of improving numbers: three quarters of a slowdown in job losses and two straight quarters, Q1 and Q1 2014, of actual growth in youth employment. For Spain, the trend is again not as pronounced – young Spaniards are still losing jobs – but at least situation is not worsening nearly as fast now as it did in 2012. For Q1 2014 Spanish youth employment fell by 4.7 percent; for Q2 2014 it fell by 1.2 percent. By contrast, the first two quarters of 2013 the decline was 14.7 and 12.4 percent, respectively.

In this area the euro zone is still very much in trouble. Consider these changes, quarterly year-over-year, to youth employment in the 18 euro-zone countries:

2013 2014
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Euro-18 youth employment change -3.94% -3.05% -2.88% -2.71% -3.01% -2.75%

As soon as third-quarter GDP data is out we will take a close look at them. Then we will get a good opportunity to asks whether or not Greece and Spain are indeed recovering, or if their job improvement numbers are merely a reflection of the end of the harshest austerity measures known to free men (outside Sweden) since the 1930s.

Stagnant EU Industrial Activity

A week ago Eurostat reported:

In June 2014 compared with May 2014, seasonally adjusted industrial production fell by 0.3% in the euro area (EA18) and by 0.1% in the EU28, according to estimates from Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union. In May 2014 industrial production decreased by 1.1% in both zones. In June 2014 compared with June 2013, industrial production remained stable in the euro area and rose by 0.7% in the EU28.

In other words, more evidence that the European economy is stuck in a state of stagnation. If we translate “industrial production” into “manufacturing”, then we get the following interesting numbers from Eurostat:

LB 8 20 14 1

Manufacturing employment has remained relatively stable over the past decade, obviously with a downturn during the earlier years of the Great Recession. However, the interesting part is the relation between changes in employment and changes in value added. When value added is falling faster than employment, it means employers are losing money and need to compensate by reducing employment, cutting wages or shutting down production facilities. The first two options become one if employment reductions are big enough to make a substantial difference in production costs, but if cutting employment is the only measure, the capital stock remains unchanged.

Closing facilities is a way to reduce fixed production capacity, though more drastic than a straightforward reduction in employment.

The violent changes in gross value added indicate that manufacturers made some pretty hard downsizing during the early years of the Great Recession. Once they had reduced their fixed and variable production capacity (capital and labor) they were able to improve profitability again. That improvement, however, was only transitional, as the growth in value added returned to zero and even negative territory in 2012. The lack of increase in employment during this period reinforces the conclusion that the upswing was structural, not related to an economic recovery.

Employment, meanwhile, has remained steady. The question is what the most recent uptick means – is it the sign of a steady recovery or is it the result of corrections to manufacturing capacity in response to the decline in value added during 2012? Given the overall state of the European economy, my answer is that we are witnessing once again a structural effect on value added: more efficient allocation of production and measures taken to increase labor productivity.

Data from another industry point in the same direction:

LB 8 20 14 2

Eurostat’s data for the European construction industry reinforces the impression that there is no recovery under way. Here the value added line is dark red, and theoretically indicates an increase in profitability. However, it is not dissimilar from the one that happened in 2-12, and since there is no uptick in the employment trend.

When there is an upward trend in construction, it is a sign of a steady economic recovery. This is happening in the U.S. economy, but, as we can see, not in Europe.